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A Guide to Understanding the Sensory Systems

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Sensory processing is essential for children’s development, influencing how they interact with and understand their environment. We have eight sensory systems. This guide explores the different sensory systems and discusses how sensory challenges can impact daily life.

Visual System

The visual system allows children to perceive and interpret visual information from their surroundings, such as recognizing shapes, colors, and movements.

Common Challenges:

  • Difficulty with tracking moving objects
  • Sensitivity to bright lights or glare
  • Challenges with depth perception

Interference with Daily Life:

  • Struggling to follow along in class during visual presentations or activities
  • Avoiding outdoor play or sports due to discomfort with bright lights
  • Difficulty with tasks like reading or writing that require accurate depth perception

Auditory System

The auditory system enables children to hear and process sounds, aiding communication and navigation in their environment.

Common Challenges:

  • Sensitivity to loud noises or specific frequencies
  • Difficulty filtering out background noise
  • Challenges with auditory processing, such as understanding speech in noisy environments

Interference with Daily Life:

  • Distraction or distress in noisy classroom settings
  • Challenges with following spoken instructions or conversations
  • Avoidance of social activities or events with loud noises

Tactile System

The tactile system processes information related to touch, texture, and temperature, providing valuable sensory input about their environment.

Common Challenges:

  • Sensitivity to certain textures or fabrics
  • Discomfort with light or deep touch
  • Challenges with temperature regulation

Interference with Daily Life:

  • Refusal to wear certain clothing items, affecting dressing routines and school attire
  • Difficulty participating in messy play or art activities
  • Challenges with self-care routines like brushing teeth or hair due to tactile sensitivities

Gustatory System (Taste)

The gustatory system allows children to perceive different tastes, helping them enjoy food and beverages and identify potentially harmful substances.

Common Challenges:

  • Picky eating or aversions to certain tastes
  • Difficulty distinguishing between flavors
  • Sensitivity to spicy or strong flavors

Interference with Daily Life:

  • Limited food choices, affecting meal planning and family mealtimes
  • Challenges with social dining experiences, such as birthday parties or family gatherings
  • Difficulty identifying spoiled or potentially harmful foods based on taste

Olfactory System (Smell)

The olfactory system enables children to detect and differentiate various smells, contributing to their sense of taste and alerting them to potential dangers.

Common Challenges:

  • Sensitivity to strong or unpleasant odors
  • Difficulty identifying or distinguishing between different smells
  • Challenges with smell perception, such as anosmia (loss of smell)

Interference with Daily Life:

  • Avoidance of environments with strong odors, limiting social or recreational activities
  • Challenges with cooking or food preparation due to difficulty detecting odors
  • Difficulty detecting potentially dangerous situations, such as gas leaks or spoiled food

Vestibular System

The vestibular system contributes to children’s sense of balance, spatial orientation, and coordination, helping them maintain stability and move effectively.

Common Challenges:

  • Balance issues or frequent dizziness
  • Difficulty with spatial awareness
  • Challenges with coordination and motor planning

Interference with Daily Life:

  • Difficulty participating in physical activities or sports
  • Challenges with navigation and mobility, affecting play and exploration
  • Increased risk of falls or accidents during play or daily routines

Proprioceptive System

The proprioceptive system provides children with information about body position, movement, and force, enabling them to interact with their environment accurately.

Common Challenges:

  • Clumsiness or poor body awareness
  • Difficulty with fine motor tasks
  • Challenges with understanding and regulating force

Interference with Daily Life:

  • Difficulty with tasks requiring precision or fine motor skills, such as drawing or building with blocks
  • Challenges with self-care activities, such as dressing or tying shoes
  • Reduced confidence and participation in physical activities due to concerns about coordination and body awareness


Interoception refers to children’s ability to sense and interpret internal bodily signals, such as hunger, thirst, and pain, allowing them to respond appropriately to their physiological needs.

Common Challenges:

  • Difficulty recognizing and interpreting internal sensations
  • Challenges with regulating emotions and responses to bodily signals
  • Sensitivity or insensitivity to pain and other internal sensations

Interference with Daily Life:

  • Challenges with recognizing hunger or fullness cues, affecting eating habits and nutrition
  • Difficulty identifying and responding to pain or discomfort, potentially delaying necessary medical care
  • Challenges with emotional regulation and self-awareness, affecting overall well-being and social interactions

Understanding the sensory systems in children and recognizing the signs of sensory challenges is crucial for supporting their development and well-being. If you notice any of these challenges in your child, seeking professional evaluation and support can be beneficial. With proper understanding and intervention, children with sensory processing differences can learn to navigate their world more effectively and thrive in their daily lives.

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